2011 - 2014
Subproject 3: AN INTEGRAL RESEARCH ON THE AIR QUALITY IN URBAN AREAS
Due to its dense population, traffic, combustion of fossil fuels and industrial activities, urban areas are specific considering air quality assessment, environment protection and pollution health risk assessment. Monitoring of heavy metals, radionuclides, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, as well as of meteorological parameters, ozone concentration and UV radiation enables the evaluation of the stability of atmosphere and modeling of atmospheric processes due to global climate changes. Development of the method to measure aerosols vertical profiles (LIDAR) is of special importance as in Serbia there are no methodology for coordinated transboundary monitoring of the transport of Sahara dust and other episodes of increased content of aerosols in the atmosphere; this is aimed for participation of our country in the European LIDAR network for monitoring and verifying the models of long distance aerosols transport. The methods for determine the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by mass spectrometry based on proton transfer (PTR-MS), as significant precursors of ozone and aerosols, that are also to be developed, should provide the base for the research of atmospheric reactions due to climate conditions and changes.
Within the subproject, the following activities are to be performed:
1. Measurements of the vertical aerosols profiles by long distance detection method (development and application of LIDAR system). 2. Investigations of the concentrations, distributions, transport and interactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1), ozone, meteorological parameters, UV radiation and radon-222, as indicators of the stability of the atmosphere and dispersion of the polluting matter. 3. Biomonitoring: higher plants (leaves and tree rings) and mosses biomonitors of heavy metals and radionuclides in urban area. 4. Monitoring of radionuclides (Be-7, Pb-210, Cs-137) in ground level air as indicators of atmospheric processes, air masses transport and source pollution identification. 5. Determination of the contents of heavy metals and radionuclides in soils and its distribution in the "soil- plant- air" system in urban area (city parks). 6. Development of the methods to measure the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by mass spectrometry based on proton transfer (PTR-MS). 7. Development and implementation of X-ray fluorescence method (XRF) method for element analysis in different environmental media: soil, aerosol filters and plant material. 8. Application of the receptor models for identification of different emission sources and source apportionment. 9. Health risk assessment due to the presence of radionuclides, heavy metals and volatile organic compounds in urban air (inhalation from air, ingestion of dust resuspended from soil and absorption through skin), according to UNCEAR and Monte-Carlo methodology.
2011 - 2014
2011 - 2014
2005 - 2010
The negative effects of small particles PM10 (less than 10 micrometers in diameter (WHO, 1999)) on human health in urban areas have been confirmed in numerous long-term studies on air quality in urban areas. According to the Directive of the European Commission issued in 1999 (1999/30/EC), the UE countries are instructed to monitor PM particles and to reduce their emission in urban areas. The results of preliminary investigations performed within the project ”Air Quality studies in urban areas: heavy metals, radionuclides and their interaction in the atmosphere”, revealed the need for the continuous and long-term systematic sampling, measurements and analysis of interaction of specific pollutants PM10, PM2.5, as well as ozone, heavy metals and radionuclides in the ground level air.
The research activities on concentration, transport and interaction of suspended particles PM10 and PM2.5, heavy metals, natural and man made radionuclides and ozone in various medias (air, total atmospheric deposition, plant material-leaves, moss and soil) in ground level urban air have been performed at representative sampling points with specific micro-climate conditions. Physical and chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 particles has been done by scanning electron microscope (SEM with EDX).
Active biomonitoring method with moss bags has been used to estimate the deposition of heavy metals and radionuclides in the urban air.
The air-back trajectories model has been applied for determination of main sources of pollution in the Belgrade area. Based on the studies in the field, and transport modeling a reliable database will be formed and will used as the input parameters for epidemiological studies on the health status of the population in urban areas and are basic ones for evaluation of the health risk due to ground level air contamination.
2005 - 2008
LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) technique based on the elastic backscattering of the emitted laser radiation by the atmospheric aerosols, allows the real time visualization of the suspended particles with high temporal and spatial resolution. Elastic backscatter LIDAR proposed in this project is intended for remote detection of aerosols in the atmosphere, at the altitudes up to 5 km, with resolution of 50 m, as the most of aerosol loading is present in the first 3 km height. It is based on a pulsed Nd:YAG laser source with 532 nm, and 1064 nm wavelengths, and the received signals provide the time-height indication of the atmosphere on the basis of aerosol optical parameters such as the backscattering and/or the extinction coefficients. The proposed two wavelenght backscattering system is pointing vertically and is operated in coaxial mode. The received backscattered radiation will be detected by detection system including photomultiplier (532 nm) and avalanche photodiode (1064 nm). The results of LIDAR experimental measurements will be analyzed using Dust Regional Atmospheric Modeling (DREAM) system in the case of transport of mineral aerosol for Saharan dust outbreak transported to our country. Organized LIDAR measurements together with simulations with meteorological models provide a basic tool in studies of aerosol transport over Europe and its impact on European climate.
Research within the project development and implementation of modern archeological - non-destructive methods in the analysis of cultural heritage included the development and application of modern methods of analysis in physics, physical-chemistry and materials science at the artifacts of cultural and historical heritage. Also the research included a broad and important historical periods in the development of society and communities in these areas which would assist the understanding of the context of historical events. Archeometric analysis and research of archaeological findings and materials have been carried out on samples from sites in Serbia, which belong to the periods of prehistory, antiquity and middle Ages. GIS, GPR and GPS technology was used in the new research center and the Roman legionary camp Viminacium (b. 147 010). Also part of this study was related to the selected artifacts of the National Museum in Belgrade and Serbian icons from the Baroque period, the Gallery of Matica Srpska in Novi Sad